Chromium Silver-white, very hard and brittle metal. Chromium is chemically resistant and oxidises only minimally when exposed to humid air. In non-oxidising acids such as HCI, chromium dissolves while
Blocking Plasma can be used to limit the undesirable bonding of surfaces of superimposed coats which is found particularly often in coats with high-gloss surfaces due to the surface forces.
Wetting Wetting is present if a liquid applied to solid dissolves. This is not necessarily the case. Liquids have a surface tension which results from the mutual bonding forces of the surface molecule
Wettability A surface is wettable if a liquid applied to it can wet the surface. A surface can be wettable for liquids with low surface tension, but not for others whose surface tension is higher than
Coating Collective term for processes in which a substance is applied to a surface to create thereon a coat with protective, decorative, or other properties different from the surface’s original prope
Printing To learn more about the various options for surface printing, read the chapter ⇒ Printing processes . Before surfaces can be printed, they almost always require surface cleaning and in many c
over the surface. In the special system Femto TEM, thin layer samples are prepared for transmission electron microscopy.
Automation In particular atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be integrated in a fully automated in-line production. Plasma generators of PlasmaBeam systems can be controlled by robots, also free
Excited atoms : In excited atoms, valence electrons are excited to higher energy levels. These excited atoms are highly reactive because the excited valence electrons are very easily released to binding partners [...] Atoms are not always ionized in plasma. Often electrons are not completely removed, but only excited to higher energy levels. Excited valence electrons easily fall back to their basic state under energy
proton only), and the atomic shell several electrons (in case of hydrogen, one electron only). The number of protons is always identical with the number of electrons in neutral state. If the numbers differ [...] particle is not an atom but an electrically charged ion . Model representation of a lithium atom. Electron orbits are shown in a shell model