Modern fotolithographic and plasma etching technologies (RIE, DRIE) enable for microscopic fluid structures for analysis and synthesis of organic fluids. Organic silicon materials (PDMS) are perfect molding materials for the layout of these structures because they provide extreme sharpness and accuracy of moulded parts. 

These structures include microchannels, valves, micropumps and microtiters which enable unique possiblities to handle fluids. For examples the separation of biological single cells is possible. These PDMS-moulded microfluided structures are often positioned on a small glass- or silicon-chip and include all structures needed for analyses. Therefore these elements are designated Lab-on-Chip. Often the short-cut LOC is applied.

complete microfluidic structures for analysis can be positioned on one single glass chip.