ESCA

Acronym for "Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis", a technology also referred to as IEE (Induced Electron Emission) or XP(E)S (X-Ray induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy) for the analysis of bonding states. ESCA is used primarily for analysing the surfaces of samples (e.g. to determine oxidation states; to this end, all elements except hydrogen and helium can be analysed).

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